Many retirees are surprised to learn that, above a certain income threshold, Social Security can be subject to taxation. Here are some things to consider.
For many retirees, Social Security benefits are a crucial component of their retirement income strategy. However, many Americans are surprised to learn that some of that income can be taxed. If you’re currently receiving Social Security or planning to do so soon, make sure you’re aware of how this benefit will be taxed.
Generally, your Social Security is taxed when your income is more than $25,000 per year, including income from investments held in retirement accounts such as traditional 401(k)s and IRAs. If Social Security is your only source of income, you likely won’t pay any taxes on it. However, if you’re receiving income from investments, a part-time job or other sources, there’s a good chance you will have to pay taxes on your Social Security income.
Regardless of your total income, the maximum taxable portion of your Social Security benefits will not exceed 85% under the current tax codes.
If your benefits are indeed subject to taxation, you can consider three key strategies to potentially reduce the tax implications: converting a traditional 401(k)/IRA to a Roth 401(k)/IRA account, delaying Social Security benefits, and leveraging investments that provide non-taxable income.
Below, in more detail, are ways to help you determine if you Social Security income will be taxed, and it can potentially provide ideas to help you reduce your taxable income in retirement.
To calculate your taxable Social Security benefit, first determine your “Adjusted Gross Income (AGI),” which is your total taxable income, such as the money you make from:
Next, subtract any tax deductions. The result is your AGI.
Then, add two components to AGI:
The total is your “combined income.” If your combined income is more than $34,000 for singles or $44,000 for couples, then up to 85% of your Social Security income may be taxed.
Social Security income is taxed at a lower rate than income from other sources like traditional retirement accounts. So, you may want to consider the following strategies to help you to lower income from those retirement accounts so that a greater portion of your income is derived from Social Security.
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1) Convert to a Roth IRA. Withdrawals on Roth IRAs and Roth 401(k)s are not subject to taxation. That’s because taxes were taken when contributions were made. If your money is in a traditional IRA or 401(k), you have already received a tax advantage in the form of an income tax deduction when you deposited the money, so 100% of those payments will be taxed as income. Income from a Roth account does not count toward the “combined income” that will affect taxes on your Social Security benefits. But remember, you must have a Roth account open for five years before you can withdraw the money tax-free. You can open a Roth at any time, even if you are over 70 ½, the age at which you can no longer contribute to a traditional 401(k). Plus, you can continue to contribute to a Roth throughout retirement.
Be aware that converting from a traditional retirement account to a Roth IRA account means you’ll pay income tax on the amount in the account, but after that first tax bill, distributions will be tax-free, and won’t be counted toward your income calculation. Also, with the new tax law, a Roth conversion can no longer be “recharacterized,” which means it can’t be transferred back to a traditional IRA if you change your mind about the conversion.
2) Consider Shifting Income Investments. Some investments that retirees rely on for income generate taxable income, while others are non-taxable. For example, the interest from many bonds is subject to tax. Dividends, interest from savings accounts or other investments also count as taxable income. However, interest from municipal bonds is generally not taxed.
With a strategy of reallocating investments to include non-taxed income, investors can accept retirement payments that do not count as income, which means they won’t add to the income that can trigger taxes on your Social Security benefits. By shifting your assets to those that favor the types of income that are shielded from taxation, you can still plan for the same amount of retirement income with potentially lower taxes on your Social Security.
3) Delay Claiming Your Social Security Benefits. If you have outside income and other investments, you might be better off being more aggressive on drawing upon those assets early on, and delay taking Social Security. You'll get a Social Security bump the longer you wait—8% a year until age 70. By then, if you’ve drawn down other assets (which are likely taxed at a higher rate) there might be fewer of those assets left to tax, which can potentially lower the amount of your Social Security benefits subject to taxation.
Before choosing to delay your Social Security benefits, assess your expected income from all sources and compare to your expected expenses. This can help ensure that you’ll have the funds to live comfortably.
Social Security taxes may come as a surprise to many retirees, but there are several effective ways to reduce these taxes. Examine how all of your income sources might impact your tax rate, and then consider your available strategies for getting the most out of your retirement income.
TD Ameritrade does not provide tax advice. You should consult with a tax professional regarding your specific circumstances.
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