How can individuals get risk based margins like market makers and not have to own a seat on the exchange floor? It's with portfolio margin.
How can an individual trader get risk-based margins like a market maker without owning (or leasing) a seat or trading on the exchange floor? Portfolio margin.
Portfolio margin is a new, risk-based margin available for qualified accounts. Portfolio margin computes real-time margin for stock and option positions based on their risk rather than the fixed percentages and strategy rules associated with Regulation T margin.
Portfolio margin at TD Ameritrade uses theoretical pricing models to calculate the real-time losses of a position at different price points above and below the current underlying price. The largest theoretical loss identified is the margin required for the position.
TD Ameritrade uses an industry standard option pricing model to calculate, in real time, the theoretical fair value for both put and call options by using inputs of underlying price, strike price, time to expiration, volatility, the risk-free interest rate, and dividend yield (if applicable).
The result of all this is frequently lower margin requirements and increased leverage when compared to Regulation T margin requirements. Here’s a breakdown of some of the other differences between portfolio margin and Regulation T.
The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) developed a risk-based margin model in 1988 for calculating margin requirements for future and options on futures.
On December 12, 2006, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) approved a rule change to make portfolio margin available to brokerage firms. The Options Clearing Corporation (OCC) provided broker dealers with the only approved model, the Theoretical Intermarket Margining System (TIMS), which is a baseline minimum risk-based model to calculate margin requirements for portfolio margin accounts once a day after the equity market is closed.
FIGURE 1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF PORTFOLIO MARGIN.
Image source: TD Ameritrade
Now that you have an introduction to portfolio margin, and a basic understanding of some of the features and characteristics when compared to Regulation T, you can learn more about how portfolio margin works here.
Portfolio margining involves a great deal more risk than cash accounts and is not suitable for all investors. Minimum qualification requirements apply. Portfolio margining is not available in all account types.
Portfolio margining privileges subject to TD Ameritrade review and approval. Not all clients will qualify. Please consider your financial resources, investment objectives, and tolerance for risk to determine if it makes sense for your individual circumstances. Carefully read the Portfolio Margin Risk Disclosure Statement, Margin Handbook, and Margin Disclosure Document for specific disclosures and more details. You may also contact TD Ameritrade at 800-669-3900 for copies.
for thinkMoney ®
Financial Communications Society 2016
for Ticker Tape
Content Marketing Awards 2016
Content intended for educational/informational purposes only. Not investment advice, or a recommendation of any security, strategy, or account type.
Be sure to understand all risks involved with each strategy, including commission costs, before attempting to place any trade. Clients must consider all relevant risk factors, including their own personal financial situations, before trading.
Market volatility, volume, and system availability may delay account access and trade executions.
Past performance of a security or strategy does not guarantee future results or success.
Options are not suitable for all investors as the special risks inherent to options trading may expose investors to potentially rapid and substantial losses. Options trading subject to TD Ameritrade review and approval. Please read Characteristics and Risks of Standardized Options before investing in options.
Supporting documentation for any claims, comparisons, statistics, or other technical data will be supplied upon request.
This is not an offer or solicitation in any jurisdiction where we are not authorized to do business or where such offer or solicitation would be contrary to the local laws and regulations of that jurisdiction, including, but not limited to persons residing in Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, UK, and the countries of the European Union.
TD Ameritrade, Inc., member FINRA/SIPC, and a subsidiary of TD Ameritrade Holding Corporation. TD Ameritrade Holding Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Charles Schwab Corporation. TD Ameritrade is a trademark jointly owned by TD Ameritrade IP Company, Inc. and The Toronto-Dominion Bank. © 2020 Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. Member SIPC.