Today’s obsession with the “short term” has created a new paradigm for “long-term” investing. It might help to put a trading spin on the long-term view.
Long term. In the financial world, the phrase is usually teamed with “investor” to describe a per- son who buys stock and patiently holds it for a “long” time, maybe years or decades. No taking of profits. No stop losses. Maybe the occasional reallocation or reinvesting of dividends. Above all, the goal is to have steady, compounding returns over time—the hallmark of a successful, albeit traditional, investing career.
Long-term investors often have a “set-it-and-forget-it” approach to their positions. But investments aren’t rotisserie chickens. The consequences for overcooked chicken aren’t quite as serious as assuming your investments will take care of themselves. That kind of mistake can mean overlooking risk—something professional traders have a deeper understanding of. Here we’ll explore three kinds of risks you’ll need to understand if you’re a long-term investor hoping to think more like a trader: systematic risk, non-systematic risk, and, well, let’s just save the third until the end.
Systematic risk, or market risk, describes what happens when all stocks rise or fall based on some external factor—like a change in interest rates, problems with European debt, or unemployment numbers. This is the risk of the market overall, not just a particular industry. For example, bank stocks, tech stocks, and energy stocks represent very different industries. But think about what happened in 2008. Based on the fears of a global financial meltdown, all stocks dropped, regardless of industry or sector. That’s a straight shot of systematic risk. But surprisingly, this kind of risk doesn’t affect all stocks equally. In 2008, as it played out, some stocks dropped a larger percentage than others. How do you account for this disparity when assessing portfolio risk? Think like a trader.
Beta for assessing longer-term risk.
We use “beta” to measure how much systematic risk a stock has. Let’s explore that. The S&P 500 is a large, diversified stock index reflecting a wide range of industries and sec- tors. That’s why the S&P 500 is considered a performance benchmark. Now, for example, when the S&P 500 moves up 1%, a bank stock moves up 0.75%, and an energy stock moves up 1.5%, the bank stock has a beta of 0.75 (i.e., less risk than the S&P 500), and the energy stock is said to have a beta of 1.5 (i.e., more risk than the S&P 500). A stock beta indicates how much the price of the stock might change (in percentage terms) when the S&P 500 (or another benchmark) changes by 1%. Beta, in other words, is a measure of the stock’s volatility—its risk—relative to a benchmark.
You can see a stock’s beta in TD Ameritrade’s thinkorswim® trading platform by going to the Trade page (see sidebar below, “How to Get Better Beta”). By default, the beta in thinkorswim uses five years of data to calculate systematic risk. For a shorter term of one year, you may want to switch to “Fast Beta,” which can be found in the Applications Settings box (Figure 1), which you’ll find under the application’s Setup menu in the upper right of the platform. Switching the beta method sets the beta you’ll see on the Trade page, as well as sets the beta used in the beta-weighting tool on the Monitor page.
FIGURE 1: GETTING A FASTER BETA. To get a one-year beta (instead of the default five) in thinkorswim, go to the Application Settings in the Setup menu of the platform. For illustrative purposes only.
Beta-weighting for a “truer” measure.
This tool adjusts your position’s delta (the amount your position moves—typically an option) by the stock’s beta so you can compare the deltas in terms of a benchmark like SPX.
Say you’re long 200 shares of XOM*, 100 shares of AAPL, 300 shares of MSFT, etc., with your position deltas equal to their number of shares. While delta is a measure of risk, you can’t really compare position deltas directly because each stock has a different level of systematic risk. When you apply the beta-weighting tool with, say, SPX as the benchmark, you might see that XOM has a beta-weighted delta of 50, AAPL 75, and MSFT 20. So in S&P 500 terms, your portfolio theoretically has more risk in AAPL than it does in either XOM or MSFT.
How to Reduce Systematic Risk.
So as a trader, what do you do with this information? In the case of individual positions, unless you’re more confident in your bullish opinion of say, AAPL, you might want to bring its beta-weighted delta down closer to the others by reducing the number of shares, or purchasing a put, for example. For your portfolio with too much systematic risk, you might reduce the portfolio deltas with defined-risk, negative-delta strategies, such as short call vertical spread, long put vertical spread, or others in the benchmark product.
Taking the beta-weighted delta one step further, you can see the portfolio’s total delta at the bottom in terms of the benchmark. It gives you your portfolio’s systematic risk, which is the dollar amount of profit or loss that would theoretically occur if the benchmark moved $1.00. Are you comfortable with that amount of risk? A set-it-and-forget-it investor wouldn’t think about it. But keeping track of your systematic risk can potentially help you avoid a nasty loss in another crash.
Non-systematic risk, or industry- or sector- sensitive risk, is stock risk not predicted by its beta. For example, if a stock has a beta of 1.5, and the S&P 500 moves up 1%, theoretically the stock price would go up 1.5%. But if it goes up 1.4%, that 0.1% difference can be accounted for by non-systematic risk. Non-systematic risk is what happens when one stock is dropping sharply while the rest of the market is up. This often happens around earnings announcements, industry news, or other corporate events—effects that don’t always show up through the lens of the beta tool.
How to reduce non-systematic risk.
Theoretically, you can diversify to help reduce non-systematic risk. The S&P 500, for example, doesn’t have a lot of non-systematic risk because the impact of one stock, or even one sector, on the index as a whole isn’t that large. So, the long-term investor can seek to reduce non-systematic risk with index products, or a portfolio of individual stocks, from a broad range of sectors. By contrast, a trader hunts down the very things that might cause non-systematic risk. The Calendar tab on the MarketWatch page of thinkorswim shows upcoming earnings events, for instance (see Figure 2).
FIGURE 2: CHECK YOUR CALENDAR. Look at the “Calendar” feature in the MarketWatch tab of thinkorswim to be aware of potential non-systematic risk that could be lurking in the future. For illustrative purposes only.
Knowing when news is coming for a specific stock, or housing numbers, or petroleum data that could impact whole sectors, could let you hedge the stock before the news comes out. In this way, the long-term investor can potentially reduce non-systematic risk more directly.
YOU, THE TRADERYou can’t predict systematic or non-systematic risk very well at all. You can try to mitigate them, but can’t control them. But there’s a third kind of risk that financial theory doesn’t cover, and which is entirely under your control. You. How can you be a risk to your own portfolio, you might ask? In a word, position size. Or more specifically, having a position in a single stock significantly larger than any other. If that stock has a correction, could it create an unrecoverable loss in your account? A “too-big” position in a long-term investor’s account could reflect an unlucky combination of systematic and non-systematic risk with potentially significant downsides.
How to save you from yourself.
Be objective. No matter how attractive and tempting one stock’s shares might be, your analysis may be imperfect, and remember that money doesn’t pick favorites. In a word, take your bias out of the equation. Keep the risk of any new trade roughly the same size as the others. And that will free you up to better manage systematic and non-systematic risks, while not burning down your house trying to perfect a rustic galette with turkey sausage, eggplant, tomato, and ricotta.
To get your position or portfolio beta using a different benchmark other than the S&P 500, use the beta-weighting tool in thinkorswim:
1. On the Monitor page, look in the Position Statement section.
2. Display delta in one of the columns. Access by clicking the gear icon on the far right-hand side and add it to the display.
3. In the upper right, click the “Beta Weighting” box and enter the symbol you want to use as the beta-weighting benchmark of your choice. Stick to something that matches your book, like SPX for a large-cap portfolio, or NDX for a smaller-cap portfolio.
4. You’ll immediately see your individual position and portfolio deltas change. Those shifts represent the profit or loss your position would have if the benchmark of your choice moved $1.00.
Do Not Sell or Share My Personal Information
Content intended for educational/informational purposes only. Not investment advice, or a recommendation of any security, strategy, or account type.
Be sure to understand all risks involved with each strategy, including commission costs, before attempting to place any trade. Clients must consider all relevant risk factors, including their own personal financial situations, before trading.
*The symbols shown in this article are for illustrative purposes only and not a recommendation to buy, sell, or hold any security.
Spreads and other multiple-leg options strategies can entail substantial transaction costs, including multiple commissions, which may impact any potential return. These are advanced options strategies and often involve greater risk, and more complex risk, than basic options trades. Investors should also consider contacting a tax adviser regarding the tax treatment applicable to multiple-leg transactions.
Market volatility, volume, and system availability may delay account access and trade executions.
Past performance of a security or strategy does not guarantee future results or success.
Options are not suitable for all investors as the special risks inherent to options trading may expose investors to potentially rapid and substantial losses. Options trading subject to TD Ameritrade review and approval. Please read Characteristics and Risks of Standardized Options before investing in options.
Supporting documentation for any claims, comparisons, statistics, or other technical data will be supplied upon request.
This is not an offer or solicitation in any jurisdiction where we are not authorized to do business or where such offer or solicitation would be contrary to the local laws and regulations of that jurisdiction, including, but not limited to persons residing in Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, UK, and the countries of the European Union.
TD Ameritrade, Inc., member FINRA/SIPC, a subsidiary of The Charles Schwab Corporation. TD Ameritrade is a trademark jointly owned by TD Ameritrade IP Company, Inc. and The Toronto-Dominion Bank. © 2023 Charles Schwab & Co. Inc. All rights reserved.