Options on futures are quite similar to their equity option cousins, but a few differences do exist.
Tax audit. Crash. Emergency liquidation. Let's face it—some financial terms are scary, perhaps for good reason. But here's a term that may sound scarier than it is: derivatives.
A derivative product is simply something that derives its price from the price of something else. For example, stock options—a put you might buy for protection on a stock you own, or the covered call you might write—those are derivatives. The option premium is "derived" in part from the price of the underlying stock.
Futures contracts are derivatives, as well. Futures prices are derived from the spot, or cash price, of the underlying. And an option on a futures contract? Is that a derivative on a derivative? Yep, and this derivative shares many characteristics with its equity option cousin.
If you have an approved account at TD Ameritrade, you can trade options on a number of futures products on the thinkorswim® platform:
And although options on futures share many of the same characteristics of their equity cousins, there are a few subtle differences that make them unique. If you're an equity options trader looking to add new trading alternatives or exposure to different asset classes, read on and decide if options on futures might be right for you.
The same basic math applies to both equity options and options on futures. Option prices are calculated using the same basic inputs—price of the underlying, implied volatility (IV), days until expiration, prevailing interest rates. Plus, the risk profile graphs look the same. And those "greeks"—delta, gamma, theta and vega—are the same as well. From basic call and put option strategies to multi-leg strategies such as straddles and strangles, vertical spreads, iron condors, and more, if you're an experienced trader, options on futures can be another way to pursue your objectives, in the same fashion as equity options.
The deliverable. With standard U.S. equity options, when you exercise or are assigned on a contract, the deliverable is 100 shares of stock. So if you exercise a call option, for example, you're exercising your right to buy 100 shares of the stock at the strike price, on or before the expiration date. But futures, in contrast, are contracts for future delivery of the underlying. So when you exercise or are assigned an option, you're taking either a long or short position in the underlying futures contract. And each futures product has its own delivery and settlement cycle, and a list of option series that expire into each futures contract. For example, many financial futures, such as E-mini S&P 500 futures (/ES), are on the quarterly futures delivery cycle (March, June, September, December). And within each quarterly futures contract there are often monthly and weekly option expirations, so it's important to know which futures contract an option is based on. July and August options, for example, will typically expire into the September future. Crude oil, in contrast, has a futures delivery each month.
Need a cheat sheet? If you’re a TD Ameritrade client, you can refer to the calendar on the thinkorswim platform by going to MarketWatch > Calendar and checking the Futures Liquidation box. Also, futures and options exchanges list information on delivery and expiration dates, contract specifications, margin and performance bond requirements, and more on their websites. Contract size, multipliers, and tick sizes. Standard equity option contracts represent 100 shares of the underlying stock. The multiplier is 100, so each penny that the price of an equity option goes up or down will change the value of the contract by $1. For example, if you sold a call option for $1, and you bought it back for $1.50, you would have lost $50, plus transaction costs. If, instead, the option expired out of the money (OTM), you would have made $100, minus transaction costs.
Futures contracts, and the options based on them, come in all shapes and sizes. Some are cash settled; some are physically settled. Some have contract sizes that are nice round numbers, and quoted in dollars and cents; some are quoted in fractions. Although there are many different multipliers in the futures world, they’re based on contract size, and it’s the contract sizes that tend to differ. For more on options contract terms, please refer to this primer.
FIGURE 1: FUTURES AND OPTIONS ON FUTURES.
In the thinkorswim® platform from TD Ameritrade, under the Trade tab, click the dropdown box, then the Futures tab to see the available products and some contract terms. For illustrative purposes only.
Perhaps a different skew. If you're an experienced equity options trader, you've likely noticed that, typically, the IV for an OTM put is higher than the IV of an OTM call, stemming from the perception that stocks fall faster than they rise, or that there's a greater likelihood of "panic" to the downside than the upside. It's the same basic premise behind the CBOE Volatility Index (VIX), aka the "fear gauge," which tends to rise as the market falls and vice versa. See the /ES option chain in figure 2.
FIGURE 2: DOWNSIDE SKEW IN /ES.
Note the higher implied vol in downside strikes in the E-mini S&P 500 (/ES). Data source: CME Group. Chart source: the thinkorswim® platform from TD Ameritrade. For illustrative purposes only.
But options on some futures can behave, and thus be priced, quite differently. Options on corn and soybean futures, for example, might have a natural upside skew, with OTM calls having a higher IV than OTM puts. Which stands to reason, as food scarcity could potentially lead to frenzied buying. See the option chain for soybean futures (/ZS) in figure 3.
FIGURE 3: UPSIDE SKEW IN /ZS.
Note the higher implied vol in upside strikes in options on soybean futures (/ZS). Data source: CME Group. Chart source: the thinkorswim® platform from TD Ameritrade. For illustrative purposes only.
Other contracts, such as some foreign currencies, have no "natural" skew, and skew can vary depending on market conditions, expectations, and the supply and demand of upside versus downside options.
Margin requirements. One final difference between equity options and options on futures is margin—the deposit required by your broker on an open position. Unlike equity options, which use Reg T margin, options on futures use SPAN margin, a risk-based margin model that essentially stress-tests your options and futures positions against a variety of potential price and volatility scenarios to determine an appropriate margin amount.
So there you have it. If you’re an equity options trader looking to “up your game” to a new line of derivatives, or an investor looking for exposure in additional asset classes, you might consider options on futures. Just keep the twists in mind.
Doug Ashburn is not a representative of TD Ameritrade, Inc. The material, views, and opinions expressed in this article are solely those of the author and may not be reflective of those held by TD Ameritrade, Inc.
for thinkMoney ®
Financial Communications Society 2016
for Ticker Tape
Content Marketing Awards 2016
Content intended for educational/informational purposes only. Not investment advice, or a recommendation of any security, strategy, or account type.
Be sure to understand all risks involved with each strategy, including commission costs, before attempting to place any trade. Clients must consider all relevant risk factors, including their own personal financial situations, before trading.
Spreads and other multiple-leg option strategies can entail substantial transaction costs, including multiple commissions, which may impact any potential return. These are advanced option strategies and often involve greater risk, and more complex risk, than basic options trades.
Inclusion of specific security names in this commentary does not constitute a recommendation from TD Ameritrade to buy, sell, or hold.
Investors cannot directly invest in an index.
All investments involve risk, including loss of principal. Past performance does not guarantee future results. There is no assurance that the investment process will consistently lead to successful investing.
Futures and futures options trading involves substantial risk and is not suitable for all investors. Please read the Risk Disclosure Statement prior to trading futures products.
Futures accounts are not protected by the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC).
Futures and futures options trading services provided by Charles Schwab Futures and Forex LLC. Trading privileges subject to review and approval. Not all clients will qualify. Prior to a name change in September 2021, Charles Schwab Futures and Forex LLC was known as TD Ameritrade Futures & Forex LLC.
Charles Schwab Futures and Forex LLC, a CFTC-registered Futures Commission Merchant and NFA Forex Dealer Member. Charles Schwab Futures and Forex LLC is a subsidiary of The Charles Schwab Corporation.
Market volatility, volume, and system availability may delay account access and trade executions.
Past performance of a security or strategy does not guarantee future results or success.
Options are not suitable for all investors as the special risks inherent to options trading may expose investors to potentially rapid and substantial losses. Options trading subject to TD Ameritrade review and approval. Please read Characteristics and Risks of Standardized Options before investing in options.
Supporting documentation for any claims, comparisons, statistics, or other technical data will be supplied upon request.
This is not an offer or solicitation in any jurisdiction where we are not authorized to do business or where such offer or solicitation would be contrary to the local laws and regulations of that jurisdiction, including, but not limited to persons residing in Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, UK, and the countries of the European Union.
TD Ameritrade, Inc., member FINRA/SIPC, a subsidiary of The Charles Schwab Corporation. TD Ameritrade is a trademark jointly owned by TD Ameritrade IP Company, Inc. and The Toronto-Dominion Bank. © 2021 Charles Schwab & Co. Inc. All rights reserved.